Education system in Mongolia

The first Education Law of Mongolia was adopted in 1968. In July 1991, and June 1995, the Parliament of Mongolia revised the law and approved the amendments to the Education Law. The law provides that:

Education shall be under government supervision.

Basic education shall be compulsory.

General education provided through state school (elementary or basic education, secondary education) shall be free.

Various options in the forms and organization of education shall be made available, and these options shall be free and open. Thus the legal basis for a new educational system in Mongolia based on interest, ability and the needs of citizens has been formed.

Mongolian religious history

Mongolia is a country of a unique symbiosis of various religions. Mongolians traditionally having professed polytheistic religion remain remarkably tolerant in regards to one’s faith and beliefs. Democratic principle of freedom of religion has always been ensured and guaranteed by the lifestyle traditions and mentality of people living in Mongolia. Shamanism is indigenous religion of Mongols. From time immemorial it has been practiced in Mongolia. Shamanism embraces a belief in powerful spirits who can influence people’s lives and fate. Today shamanism is on the blink of ceasing to exist with only few superficial rituals being practiced in some out of the away places. Buddhism of Mongolia Lamaism has many followers in today’s Mongolia. According to chronicles, Buddhism came to Mongolia round the 3rd century B.C as religion of the court. Between 6-11 centuries, many Buddhism sutras were translated into Mongolian and in the 13th century the very first Buddhist temples were built. Chinggis Khan encouraged Buddhism and Islamic devotions. Khubilai khan is alleged to have first confirmed a title of Dalai Lama from upon a Lama from Tibet. (Dalai Lama in Mongolian means a monk of immeasurable knowledge) The first Dalai Lama converted Mongolian King Altan Khan and his subjects to Buddhism in 1578. During the rule of Altai Khan the famous monastery of ErdeneZuu was built, which is now a popular tourist destination. In the Western part of Mongolia, Islam is professed by the Kazakhs. Today various forms of Christianity are being introduced by Western missionaries.

How to greet in Mongolia

When a visitor spots or approaches a ger he says “Nokhoi khorioroi” which literally means “call off the dog”. A hostess or a child usually comes out and invites the guest into a Ger.  The visitor should not carry a whip, hobble or weapon when he comes in and he hangs his knife from the belt.  The visitor normally does not knock on the door. He crosses the threshold with the right foot. A guest greets inside, not outside. In Mongolia, the younger usually greets first and asks “Ta sain baina uu” which means “how are you” “how do you do”. Mongols living in the countryside are not used to shaking hands with visitors: instead, they greet by stretching their arms if they see each other for the first time in the year.

Mongolian New Year (Tsagaan sar)

Mongolian Lunar 🌙 New Year, Tsagaan sar is one of the two main celebrations of Mongolia 🇲🇳 (other one Naadam Festival). It is nomads celebration for successfully surpassing the harsh cold winter months ❄️ and finally greeting the warm spring 🌱 . Families living in remote areas visit their elderly relatives and celebrate the beginning of spring. All kinds of delicious food 🍲🥘🥙 are prepared and the feast can continue for few days. It is a national celebration that brings together families and relatives together.

Shamanism

Shamanism

Shamanism is the very first faith that existed before religion in ancient Mongolia. Nowadays some people still believe and worship this religion (Mongolians don’t consider Shamanism as a religion, but see it as spiritual connection between human, natures). Therefore, people ask about their destiny, and solutions to issues, even diseases such as cancer, rheumatism and mental illness, etc. The northwestern part of Mongolia (people who live in deep forests) is famous of Shamanism.

 

Short History of Great Chinggis Khan

Mongol leader Chinggis Khan (1162-1227) rose from humble beginnings to establish the largest land empire in history. After uniting the nomadic tribes of the Mongolian plateau, he conquered huge chunks of central Asia and China. His descendants expanded the empire even further, advancing to such far-off places as Poland, Vietnam, Syria and Korea. At their peak, the Mongols controlled between 11 and 12 million contiguous square miles, an area about the size of Africa. Many people were slaughtered in the course of Chinggis Khan’s invasions, but he also granted religious freedom to his subjects, abolished torture, encouraged trade and created the first international postal system. Chinggis Khan died in 1227. His final resting place remains unknown.

The Parliament House of Mongolia

The Parliament House was located on the second floor of current National Education University of Mongolia in 1930. Since then it has changed its location few times until 1951 the year they got their own official Parliament House. It is 35,804 meter square and includes about 40 cabinets such as 10 conference halls, restaurant, library, gym, laundry shop, barber shop, pharmacy etc. The Parliament House is workplace of President of Mongolia, governor’s office and the general association of election. Nearly 1000 employees work at The Parliament House, also it safe keeps almost 100 precious rare paintings, 10 sculptures, carvings and the Mongolian 10 walled ger (yurt) with a statue of Chinggis Khan sitting on the throne.

Altai mountain

Which mountain range would you find in Mongolia?

The Altai Mountains can be found in the west of Mongolia and include the five peaks of Tavan Bogd (Five Saints). The highest of these, and the highest peak in Mongolia, is Huiten Uul (Mt Cold) which is 4374m. The Sayan Mountains lie north of Mongolia in Russia, the Khinggan Mountains can be found in the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia while Tian Shan stretches across Kyrgyzstan and the Chinese province of Xinjiang Uygur.

Air-dried meat (Borts)

Borts is dried meat (usually of beef, goat or sheep) similar to jerkey. Mongolian nomadic lifestyle and the extreme climatic conditions gave rise to specific methods of preserving meat. The fresh meat is cut into long strips, 2-4 cm thick and 15-30 cm long. The strips are hung on strings in shaded parts of the yurt or in the barn, where the air is free to circulate. After a month or two, the fresh meat turns into dry, hard sticks of brown color, borts. Compared to fresh meat, borts is 4 times lighter, convenient to store upto 3years and still preserves all of its nutritional values, therefore perfect for our nomadic lifestyle

Notes when you visit the monasteries and temples in Mongolia.

There are 136 Buddhist monasteries and temples in Mongolia. You will probably see at least few of them during your visit. It doesn’t matter if you are Christian, Catholic or Muslim, when you visit Buddhist temples and monasteries you should take off your hat and step over the threshold (not step on it) with right leg. It means the visitor is showing respects and mindfulness. Also, avoid speaking loudly and touching deities sculptures. Furthermore I’d like to remind you do dress appropriately, do not wear short skirts, shorts and backless clothes. #khantravelmongolia #khantravel